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1 02 7 September 16, 1898
Report on smallpox in Constantinople.
[Report No 199.]
Constantinople, August 25, 1898.
Sir : I have the honor to report that according to the official state-
ments there exists an epidemic of typhoid fever at Grevena in Mace-
donia. The disease was imported from Thessalia, in Greece, where,
during the occupation by the Turkish troops, a wide-spread epidemic
of typhoid fever broke out among the troops.
In the province of Lebanon there exists an epidemic of smallpox.
The latter disease, as well as whooping cough, exists always in Con-
stantinople. I am glad to state that the local authorities are doing
their best to check the epidemic of smallpox, but in spite of their
efforts the disease still rages. Stringent laws and regulations have
been issued, but many persons, mainly foreign subjects, are unwilling
to submit to sanitary measures. Physicians have been appointed
to inspect the houses and vaccinate. Thousands have been vaccinated,
but I am sorry to report that several foreign subjects have refused
From the 8th to the 21st instant 427 deaths have been registered,
of which 2 were from measles, 1 from diphtheria, 12 from smallpox, and
5 from typhoid fever.
I have the houor to forward a French copy of Dr. Cozzouis' report on
the outbreak of bubonic plague in Djiddah. Dr. Cozzouis is the
inspector-general of the sanitary service of Turkey.
Spiridion C. Zavitziano,
United States Sanitary Commissioner.
Bahamas — Dunmore Town. — Two weeks ended August 30, 1898.
Estimated population, 1,472. No deaths and no contagious diseases.
Governors Harbor. — Two weeks ended August 29. Estimated popu-
lation, 1,500. No deaths and no contagious diseases.
Green Turtle Cay — Abaco. — Two weeks ended August 28. Estimated
population, 3,900. No deaths and no contagious diseases.
Bermuda. — Two weeks ended August 26, 1898. Estimated popula-
tion, 15,013. Total number of deaths, 2. No contagious diseases.
Canada — Hamilton.— Month of August, 1898. Estimated popula-
tion, 50,000. Total number of deaths, 50. No deaths from contagious
Fiji Islands — Po>t Stanley. — Fifteen weeks ended July 16, 1898.
Estimated population, 1,952. No deaths from disease and no conta-
France — Rouen. — Month of July, 1898. Estimated population,
112,657. Total number of deaths, 293, including enteric fever 3, and 31
from phthisis pulmonalis.
Great Britain — England and Wales. — The deaths registered in 33
great towns in England and Wales during the week ended August 27
September 16, 1898 1028
correspond to an annual rate of 23.2 a thousand of the aggregate popu-
lation, which is estimated at 11,218,378. The highest rate was recorded
in Wolverhampton, viz, 38.5, and the lowest in Huddersfield, viz,
London. — One thousand eight hundred and fifty-six deaths were
registered during the week, including measles, 20 ; scarlet fever, 17 ;
diphtheria, 21; whooping cough, 32; enteric fever, 9, and diarrhea
and dysentery, 463. The deaths from all causes correspond to an annual
rate of 21.5 a thousand. In greater London 2,626 deaths were regis-
tered, corresponding to an annual rate of 21.4 a thousand of the
population. In the "outer ring" the deaths included 3 from measles,
9 from diphtheria, and 12 from whooping cough.
Ireland. — The average annual death rate represented by the deaths
registered during the week ended August 27 in the 23 principal town
districts of Ireland was 23.0 a thousand of the population. The lowest
rate was recorded in Tralee, viz, 0.0, and the highest in Newtownwards,
viz, 62.4 a thousand. In Dublin and suburbs 150 deaths were regis-
tered, including diphtheria, 2, and enteric fever, 3.
Scotland.^- The deaths registered in 8 principal towns during the week
ended August 27 correspond to an annual rate of 18.4 a thousand of the
population, which is estimated at 1,568,536. The lowest mortality was
recorded in Perth, viz, 11.9, and the highest in Paisley, viz, 28.9 a
thousand. The aggregate number of deaths registered from all causes
was 556, including diphtheria, 2; measles, 8; scarlet fever, 5, and
whooping cough, 27.
Guiana — Demerara. — Month of July, 1898. Estimated population,
86,250. Total number of deaths, 235. No contagious diseases.
Jamaica — Kingston. — Two weeks ended August 27, 1898. Esti-
mated population, 34,314. Total number of deaths not reported. Two
deaths from enteric fever.
Nova Scotia — Windsor. — Month of August, 1898. Estimated popu-
lation, 7,985. Total number of deaths, 2. No contagious diseases
Russia — Riga. — Month of June, 1898. Estimated population,
282,000. Total number of deaths, 541, including diphtheria, 5; enteric
fever, 5 ; measles, 2 ; scarlet fever, 6 ; whooping cough, 7, and 59 from
St. Helena. — Eight weeks ended August 6, 1898. Estimated popu-
lation, 4,000. Total number of deaths, 10. No contagious diseases.
Uruguay — Montevideo. — Month of June, 1898. Estimated popula-
tion, 250,452. Total number of deaths, 271, including diphtheria, 2 ;
yellow fever, 2, and 31 from phthisis pulmonalis. Deaths from yellow
fever occurred in the lazaretto at the island of Flores.